Emergency oxygen

Emergency oxygen can be given for many breathing and cardiac emergencies. It can help improve hypoxia (insuffi cient oxygen reaching the cells) and reduce pain and breathing discomfort.

Always follow local protocols for using emergency oxygen.

Consider administering emergency oxygen for:

■ An adult breathing fewer than 12 or more than 20 breaths per minute.

■ A child breathing fewer than 15 or more than 30 breaths per minute.

■ An infant breathing fewer than 25 or more than 50 breaths per minute.

■ A person who is not breathing.

Emergency Oxygen Delivery Systems

Emergency oxygen delivery systems include the following equipment:

■ An oxygen cylinder.

Oxygen cylinders come in different sizes and have various pressure capacities. Cylinders are labeled “U.S.P.” (United States Pharmacopeia) and marked with a yellow diamond that says “Oxygen,” which indicates the oxygen is medical grade. Oxygen cylinders contain gas under high pressure. If mishandled, cylinders can cause serious damage, injury or death.

■ A pressure regulator with flowmeter.

The pressure regulator controls the pressure coming out of the cylinder and is indicated on the gauge in pounds per square inch (psi). The flowmeter controls how rapidly the oxygen fl ows from the cylinder to the victim. The flow rate can be set from 1 to 25 liters per minute (LPM).

■ A delivery device.

The equipment a victim breathes through is an oxygen delivery device.
Tubing carries the oxygen from the regulator to the delivery device. Delivery devices
include nasal cannulas, resuscitation masks, non-rebreather masks and bag-valve-mask
resuscitators (BVMs).

Emergency oxygen units are available without prescription for first aid use, provided they contain at least a 15-minute supply of oxygen and are designed to deliver a preset flow rate of at least 6 LPM.

The type of system used (variable or fixed flow) impacts the type of delivery devices that can be used and the concentration of oxygen that can be delivered to a victim.

■ Variable-flow-rate oxygen systems allow the rescuer to vary the flow of oxygen. This type of system must be assembled and the appropriate flow rate selected.

■ Fixed-flow-rate oxygen systems include a regulator set at a fixed-fl ow rate, usually 15 LPM, or may have a dual (high/low) flow setting. The cylinder, regulator and delivery device are already connected.



Oxygen Delivery Devices

Oxygen should be delivered with properly sized equipment for the victim and appropriate flow rates for the delivery device. Various sizes of oxygen delivery devices are available for adults, children and infants.

Delivery Device Description

Common Flow Rate - 

Oxygen Concentrations - 

Suitable Victims - 

Nasal cannula Held in place over the victim’s ears;
    oxygen is delivered at a low level through two small prongs inserted into the nostrils 1–6 LPM 24–44%

■ Victims with breathing diffi culty
■ Victims unable to tolerate mask

Resuscitation mask with oxygen inlet Pliable, domeshaped breathing
device that fi ts over the mouth and nose 6–15 LPM 35–55%

■ Victims with breathing difficulty
■ Victims who are not breathing 

Non-rebreather mask Facemask with an attached oxygen reservoir bag and one-way valvebetween the mask and bag; victim inhales oxygen from the bag and exhaled air escapes through fl utter valves on the side of the mask 10–15 LPM Up to 90% Breathing victims 
only BVM Hand-held breathing device consisting of a self-infl ating bag, a one-way valve and a face mask 15 LPM or higher 90% or more

■ Victims with diffi culty breathing
■ Victims who are not breathing

Good Home Remedies

Home Remedies
Cooling Drinks and herbal blends

Recipe 1.

  • 1 teaspoon crushed dried rose hips
  • 1 teaspoon dried peppermint leaves
  • 1 teaspoon dried sage leaves
  • 1 cup water, barely boiled


Place the herbs in a teapot. Pour the boiling water over the herbs, cover and steep 10 minutes. Strain and sweeten with honey to taste. Sip slowly while warm. The rose hips deliver a large dose of vitamin C, while peppermint and sage have a cooling effect on the system. This tea is particularly helpful with feverish colds.

Recipe 2.

  • 1 1/2 cups water
  • 3 (1/4-inch) slices fresh ginger root, bruised
  • 1/2 of a fresh lemon
  • 1 teaspoon honey
  • 1/4 teaspoon powdered cayenne pepper

Bring water to a boil in a glass or stainless steel pan. Meanwhile, hit each ginger root slice gently with the broad side of a knife to break up the pulp a bit. Put the ginger in the boiling water and simmer uncovered 5 minutes. Meanwhile, Squeeze the juice from the lemon into a cup. Add the honey and cayenne. Strain the ginger tea in to the cup, stir and sip slowly
while hot.

NOTE: You may add an ounce of brandy to your bedtime dose to help ease you into sleep.

Recipe  1
This is a soothing throat remedy for problems brought on by exertion.

  • 1 lemon
  • 1/2 cup honey
  • 1 tablespoon glycerin

Cover the entire lemon with water in a small saucepan. Boil for 1 minute.

Remove from heat. While still hot, slice the lemon in half and squeeze all the juice into a bowl, removing seeds.

Stir in the glycerin and honey.

Store the syrup in a sterilized glass bottle, tightly capped, on a shelf.

If the syrup becomes too cold, warm it slowly by setting the jar in a pan of warm water. The syrup will keep for up to 2 months.

Recipe 2

  • 1/2 lb. flax seed (you can get this at most groceries, especially if they have a non-gluten area)
  • 1 c. granulated white sugar
  • Juice of 6 lemons (can come from a bottle)
  • 1/2 lb. of honey

Put flax seed in a bag; pout over it 1 1/2 pints of water. Let simmer down to half that amount. Remove from heat and add
other ingredients while still hot. Give teaspoonful as often as necessary. Yield: between 1 and 2 pints


The ingredients are a combination of spices and nutrients with no unpleasant medicinal side effects -- no drowsiness, no dry mucous membranes, no cautions about using machinery or driving.

It soothes an irritated throat and relieves chestcongestion and phlegm.

It tastes terrible but if you have a persistent cough, it's worth a try.

1/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper
1/4 teaspoon ground ginger
1 Tablespoon honey
1 Tablespoon apple cider vinegar
2 Tablespoons water
Mix and take by the teaspoon. Take 3 teaspoons for a bad dry cough

CAUTION: Any cough persisting more than a week, accompanied by headache or fever, and any cough which is productive of thick yellow or green mucous should be evaluated by a physician. One precaution I have read is regarding the honey: Do not give honey to children under 1 year of age unless it is pasteurized or boiled for five minutes. I would not
give this mixture to a young child anyway, because the taste is too strong, and a child with a cough should be seen by a pediatrician.

Grate one ripe apple. Allow the pulp to stand at room temperature for several hours until considerably darkened before
eating. The oxidized pectin present in the fruit is the same basic ingredient found in Kaopectate brand diarrhea medicine!

  • 2 drops peppermint oil
  • 1/2 cup cool water
  • Mix and drink.

1. Soak hand (or where ever) in COLD water for a long time. If the burn is bad, for a long time –

2. When the pain (hopefully) is somewhat alleviated, sprinkle or apply pure Lavender essential oil on the burn. May
need to be applied several times.

3. If the burn still hurts, thickly apply moist clay. Wrap up in a plastic bag or strip of old sheet. If it starts to dry out, sprinkle with water, or change for fresh clay.

Bentonite, green clay, kaolin, they all work.

Don't mix the clay, get powdered clay, put in a pottery or glass bowl, pour in water, cover with a dish, and let sit, the next day it's ready to use, add more water as need to make a thick slurry.

If you only have powdered clay, and you have a burn to deal with, then mix some up, but it's much better to have it always on hand.

The pain of burns, scrapes, and other small wounds is immediately relieved with the application of clay, and it greatly speeds healing.

Cuts and scrapes
Sprinkle turmeric powder on the cut, and then apply a Band-Aid or strip of old sheet. Turmeric speeds healing and is antiseptic.

1 cup vegetable oil, warmed
1/2 teaspoon cayenne powder
Mix the cayenne into the oil. One day after the initial injury, (the first day apply ice), gently rub the oil onto the affected
area several times a day until the bruise clears. However, make sure you do not apply this to an area with broken skin.


Cold Remedy and Tonic

Use this regularly as a tonic for general health, or specifically to treat cold symptoms. Increase the amount of cayenne as your tolerance increases--use enough to feel the heat, but not be in pain.

  • 1 inch-long piece of ginger root
  • 1 1/4 cups very hot (not boiling) water
  • 1 round tablespoon lavender flower
  • Frozen lemonade concentrate, to taste
  • 1/4 teaspoon cayenne

Mash the ginger root in a garlic press, then place the juice and pulp into a small glass bowl.

Add the hot water and lavender, and steep for 3 to 5 minutes.

Strain the liquid into a cup, then add the lemonade concentrate and cayenne.

Drink the entire mixture.